In essence, industry 4.0 is the trend towards automation and data exchange in manufacturing technologies and processes which include cyber- physical systems (CPS), the internet of things (IoT), industrial internet of things (IIOT), cloud computing, cognitive computing and artificial intelligence.
This concept includes:
- Smart manufacturing
- Smart factory
- Lights out (manufacturing) also known as dark factory.
- Industrial internet of things (IIOT) also called internet of things (IOT) for manufacturing.
Industry 4.0 fosters what has been called a “smart factory”. Within modular structured smart factories, cyber-physical systems monitor physical processes, create a virtual copy of the physical world, and make decentralised decision. Over the Internet of Things, cyber-physical systems communicate and cooperate with each other and with humans in real-time both internally and across organisational services offered and used by participants of the value chain.
The determining factor is the pace of change. The correlation of the speed of technological development and, as a result, socio-economic and infrastructural transformations with human life allow us to state a qualitative leap in the speed of development, which marks a transition to a new time era.